The disorders that may be treated by urologists include those involving the kidneys, the ureters (tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder), the adrenal glands, the bladder and the urethra (the tube that passes urine out of the body from the bladder). In males, a urologist may also treat conditions of the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis. The field of urology involves the medical management of conditions such as urinary tract infection and prostate enlargement through to the surgical management of conditions such as bladder cancer, prostate cancer, kidney stones and stress incontinence.
In the case of certain conditions such as cancer of the urinary tract, urologists may need to work in conjunction with oncologists or radiotherapists. They may also need to collaborate with nephrologists who deal with kidney conditions, gynaecologists who deal with the female reproductive system and endocrinologists who are concerned with conditions of the endocrine system and hormone disorders. Urologists may also collaborate with practitioners of pediatric surgery and colorectal surgery.